understanding scripture

Midrash

Peshet – literal interpretation
Pesher – spiritual interpretation (depends on the peshet or literal interpretation)

Mashal – description of something from everyday life, from nature
Nimshal – spiritual meaning in back of the mashal
All four can be simultaneously applied and true, not exclusive to each other.
Prophecy
The hellenistic view of prophecy is prediction/fulfillment.  
Hebraic prophecy is pattern, multiple partial fulfillments of different aspects of a prophesied event pointing to the ultimate fulfillment where all details come together, even those that seem to be in conflict with each other. (For example, Rabbis argued over whether Messiah would come from Bethlehem or Egypt because there was scripture indicating both.  In fulfillment, both were true)

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